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Git Definitions

Glossary of Key Terms

Git Add

Git add can be used to stage modified files into the Git index in preparation for making a commit. Git add can be used to stage individual, multiple, or all modified files at once.  Learn More

Git Branch

A branch is a pointer to a specific commit. The branch pointer moves along with each new commit you make and only diverges in the graph if a commit is made on a common ancestor commit. Learn More

Git Checkout

In Git, the checkout command tells Git which branch or commit you want your changes applied.

Checking out a branch will update your repo’s files to match the snapshot of whichever commit the branch points to. Learn More

Git Cherry Pick

The cherry pick command takes changes from a target commit and places them onto the HEAD of your currently checked-out branch. Learn More

Git Clone

The Git clone command is used to make a copy, or clone, of an existing Git repository into a local directory. Cloning in Git will create a new local directory for the cloned repository, copy all contents of the specified remote repository, and checkout an initial branch in the new local repo.

By default, the Git clone command will create a reference to the remote repository named `origin` and create the remote tracking branches, which can all be seen by running `git branch -a`. Learn More

Git Commit

A commit represents a snapshot of your repository at a specific point in time. A commit is performed in Git as a method of applying local file changes to a Git repository after they have been staged in your working directory. Learn More

Git Config

Git config allows users to customize how Git works and optimize Git to fit their workflow. Git pulls configuration settings from a narrowing list of files, from System → Global → Local. Each configuration level can overwrite the configuration settings in the level above it. Learn More

Git Fetch

Git fetch is the mechanism for downloading commits that exist on a remote repository but are not present on the local remote tracking branch. Git fetch also updates the FETCH_HEAD file, which Git uses to coordinate merges after a Git fetch is performed. Learn More

Git Merge

The Git merge command allows you to incorporate changes made in a branch into any other branch. Learn More

Git Pull

Git Pull will take changes from a remote repository and incorporate them into your currently checked out local branch. When using this command, Git will first run a Git fetch followed by a Git merge. Learn More

Git Push

Git push is used to upload a local repository’s content to a remote repository. 

Additionally, Git push can also be used to delete a remote repository.  

Git Rebase

The Git rebase command takes a commit, or group of commits, from a source branch and applies them on top of a target branch. Learn More

Git Reset

Git Reset moves HEAD and the pointer that names and tracks the last commit of a branch. Using the options of –mixed or –soft, Git reset will preserve all the changes made between HEAD and the specified commit,  or, by using –hard, Git reset will discard all changes. Learn More

Git Stash

The Git stash command will take the state of your current working directory and save it on a stack of unfinished changes that can be reapplied at any time. This will revert back to the HEAD commit with a clean working directory. Only tracked files can be stashed. Learn More

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